4 edition of Internal stresses, dimensional instabilities and molecular orientations in plastics. found in the catalog.
1990 by Wiley .
Written in English
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||380|
Residual stresses can be defined as self-equilibrated internal stresses remaining in a body in the absence of external forces, moments, or temperature gradients. The residual stress field, therefore, satisfies the equilibrium of forces with zero body force, and is associated with zero traction on the boundary of the body. Yanming Wang, Adriano Santana, and Wei Cai, "Atomistic mechanisms of orientation and temperature dependence in gold-catalyzed silicon growth, Journal of Applied Physics, , (). Rajaprakash Ramachandramoorthy, Yanming Wang, Amin Aghaei, Gunther Richter, Wei Cai, and Horacio D. Espinosa, "Reliability of Single Crystal Silver Nanowire-Based Systems: Stress .
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Internal Stresses, Dimensional Instabilities and Molecular Orientations in PlasticsCited by: Internal stresses, dimensional instabilities and molecular orientations in plastics. L.C.E. Struik, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester pp.
xvii +price £ ISBN 0‐‐‐6Author: I. Ward. Read "Internal stresses, dimensional instabilities and molecular orientations in plastics. L.C.E. Struik, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester pp. xvii +price £ ISBN 0‐‐‐6, Polymer International" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Residual stress is an inherent result of plastics manufacturing processes and occurs when molten polymer is cooled and shaped. Sometimes, these stresses are intentionally produced to impart desirable characteristics, such as in oriented PET films and bottles. (Cold water quenching greatly increases the internal macroscopic stress of the sample, but the yield strength is also increased.) Internal stresses are problematic because they can lead to both temporal and thermal/mechanical cycling instabilities, so for critical applications these stresses should be reduced if possible.
The paper. Books By L. Struik Internal Stresses, Dimensional Instabilities and Molecular Orientations in Plastics Apr 1, by L. Struik Hardcover. $ $ 28 More Buying Choices $ is, the stress initially rises with increasing strain but then goes through a maximum and decreases, so that the stress ultimately required to sustain the ﬁxed strain rate remains lower than the peak stress.
Hasan and Boyce  show clear examples of this kind of behavior; similar data for soils can be found in the book by Ishihara . Kiasat, M.S., “shrinkage and stress build up in unsaturated polyester resin during curing”, In Polymers and Ceramics, vol. 2,pp. 95– Google Scholar Kiasat, M.S., “Curing Shrinkage and Residual Stresses in Viscoelastic Thermosetting Resins and Composites”, Ph.D.
thesis, Delft University of technology, Delft Struik LCE () Internal stresses, dimensional dimensional instabilities and molecular orientations in plastics. book and molecular orientations in plastics. Wiley.
Wimberger-Friedl R () The assessment of orientation, stress and density distributions in injection-molded amorphous polymers. Residual stresses are thus created, Measurement of these residual stresses has been accomplished by the “layer removal” method and the Internal stresses distributions through the thickness are presented.
Compressive stresses, approximately psi, exist at the surface while tensile stresses‐of at least psi exist in the interior. Such relaxation will not cause dimensional changes but only the decrease of internal stresses and molecular orientation inside the volume involved. In order to throw some light on the possibility of such relaxations the direct comparison of relative residual strain, s, the relative birefringence An/Ano and the relative value ar of maximum.
Trapped internal stresses are related to the solvent viscosity, particle elasticity, and volume fraction through a universal scaling. Struik, L. E., Internal Stresses, Dimensional Instabilities and Molecular Orientations in Plastics “ Making metallic glasses plastic by control of residual stress,” Nature Mater.
5, molecular chains. The molecular chains, shown schematically in Figure c, are three-dimensional and lie in wavy planes.
Not shown, but branching off the main chains, are side chains of varying lengths. The number, size and type of these side chains determine, in large part, the properties of density, stiffness, tensile strength. Plastics Technology covers technical and business Information for Plastics Processors in Injection Molding, Extrusion, Blow Molding, Plastic Additives, Compounding, Plastic Materials, and Resin Pricing.
Internal Stresses in Plastic Products. Dear Sirs, I am working in one of the biggest manufacturer of Plastic products in Saudi Arabia.
In our factory we are encountering a lot of problems, especially wobbling and concentricity on producing Blower wheels and Slingerfans. These engineering items are made of ABS and PP resins with or without.
Dimensional (D) and enthalpy relaxation (ΔH) of oriented polymer glasses (PS and PC) have been studied as function of temperature, between T g and T g −20 °C, and aging time t, ranging to several dimensional relaxation (shrinkage) and enthalpy relaxation curves verify the logarithm law D(t) ∼ H(t) ∼ log t, between an incubation τ i and a final relaxation time τ f.
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Plastic threads are designed differently than metal threads with larger crests and depth of roots. Bosses • Stand-alone bosses should be designed following the design guidelines for ribs (see more information under the “Ribs” section). • Use connecting ribs and/or supporting gussets X internal if possible to stiffen structural parts.
The effect of thermal cycling on the state of stress in polymeric materials bonded to stiff elastic substrates was investigated using numerical techniques, including finite element methods.
The work explored the relationship between a cyclic temperature environment, temperature-dependent viscoelastic behavior of polymers, and thermal stresses induced in a constrained system. '' internal stresses dimensional instabilities and molecular orientations in plastics '' Book by L.
Struik. Aali, Referring to books on continuum mechanics, I see that the standards. Initially plastic molding compound known as Florence compound. Its inventor, Alfred Its inventor, Alfred Critchlow, founded the Pro Corporation, Florence MA in Because of its high viscosity in melted state, PTFE powder is typically first sintered as large billet, from which parts are machined such as films, seals, and etc.
In large industrial sinter billet that can reach beyond meters in size, PTFE's low thermal conductivity and large crystallization volume change could introduce significant residual stress during cool down from sinter. In active matter, internal molecular motors can drive fluid or particle motion and amplify responses to external stimuli such as bending forces.
Most examples have been thin films, but Duclos et al. now report three-dimensional (3D) active matter, a viral particle liquid.
The residual stresses may be high enough to cause local yielding and plastic deformation on both microscopic and macroscopic level, that can severely affect component performance. For this reason it is vital that some knowledge of the internal stress state can be deduced either from measurements or modeling predictions.
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighbouring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material. For example, when a solid vertical bar is supporting an overhead weight, each particle in the bar pushes on the particles immediately below it.
Understanding long range internal stresses (LRIS) may be crucial for elucidating the basis of the Bauschinger effect, plastic deformation in fatigued metals, and plastic deformation in general. Few studies have evaluated LRIS using convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) in cyclically deformed single crystals oriented in single slip and there are no such studies carried out on cyclically.
Stress Crack A crack, either external or internal, in a plastic caused by tensile stresses less than its short-time mechanical strength. Stretch Forming A plastic sheet forming technique in which the heated thermoplastic sheet is stretched over a mold and subsequently cooled. Striation. in a steel member, at a point the major principal stress is mn/m 2 and the minor principal stresses is compressive.
if the tensile yield point of the steel is mn/m 2, find the value of the minor principal stress at which yielding will commence, according to each of the following criteria of failure. maximum shearing stress. Fairly realistic three-dimensional drumlin shapes can be produced from symmetric sediment bodies and barchan shapes can be produced from linear forms perpendicular to the ice-sheet flow.
The fact that viscous theories produce drumlinoid forms suggests that on this scale till behaves viscously and the the lower length scale for drumlins.
However, since the stress must be associated with strain, So the dimensional change is a part of this response. Depends upon materials intrinsic change behaviour. Prof. P Thareja, CE (I), F.I.E. The most obvious manifestation of this effect is that small in-plane stresses in thin sheet give rise to formation of three dimensional configurations such as buckling or wrinkling-like instabilities 1,2,5.
We demonstrate the opposite phenomena; three dimensional configurations in thin sheets give rise to internal strain configurations. This type of frozen-in stressed state is often referred to as flow-induced residual stress. Because of the stretched molecular orientation in the direction of flow, it introduces anisotropic, non-uniform shrinkage and mechanical properties in the directions.
The stress maps display the orientations of the maximum horizontal compressive stress. The length of the stress symbols represents the data quality, with A being the best quality. Quality A data are assumed to record the orientation of the maximum horizontal compressive stress to within 10°°, quality B data to within 15°°, and.
Analysis of Three Dimensional Stress and Strain. The concept of traction and stress was introduced and discussed in Book I, §3. For the most part, the discussion was confined to two-dimensional states of stress. Here, the fully three dimensional stress state is examined.
There will be some repetition of the earlier analyses. Pattern transformation in periodic microporous elastoplastic solid coatings is caused by a buckling of the struts and a rotation of the nodes under compressive stresses.
The results of a nonlinear numerical investigation confirm the critical role of the bifurcation of the periodic solid under compressive stresses. In striking contrast to the earlier observations of elastic instabilities in.
Shear stresses tend to deform the material without changing its volume, and are resisted by the body's shear modulus. Defining a set of internal datum planes aligned with a Cartesian coordinate system allows the stress state at an internal point P to be described relative to x, y, and z coordinate directions.
Residual Stress; What is it; Unlike the applied stress, residual stress is induced during processing. There are two kinds of residual stresses which are main concerns.
One is flow induced residual stress. When in molten state, polymer molecules are unstressed, and. on orientation of STZs. To get Eq. (2b)fromEq.(2a), one must note that all plastic strain is accommodated through shear transformations or ﬂipping of STZs.
It is assumed that the annihilation or creation of STZs does not generate plastic strain rate. 0 is an average shear strain increment of order unity, and τ 0 is the time scale for.
#03 The Study of Molecular Orientation by Linear Dimension Change of Polymeric Films. This lab will provide students an opportunity to investigate the linear dimension change of heated plastic film and relate the results to processing and service use of the materials.
Students will cut samples from film and prepare them for testing. internal chemical stresses may be accommodated by creep, leading to internal stress plasticity. Although the experiments described above [25–27] have exam-ined deformation during chemical cycling, they have not presented evidence for internal stress plasticity due.
Introduction. The rapidly expanding fields of mechanochemistry – and mechanobiology – require methods of defining and computing the mechanical properties of molecules at the atomistic level. The fundamental mechanical concept of stress is likely to be particularly useful for understanding structure-function relations in biomolecular systems like allosteric proteins, molecular motors, and.the stress components for any orientation this is referred as stress transformation when an element is rotated from one orientation to another, the stresses acting on the faces of the element are different but they still represent the same state of stress, namely, the stress at the point under consideration Plane Stress.Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Total Hip and Knee Replacement: Spatial Distribution of Molecular Orientation and Shape Recovery Behavior.
BioMed Research International, DOI: // Makoto Uchida, Naoya Tada.